Choosing hard cheeses

Of course we love Parmesan, but it is not the be all and end all of the hard cheese world.

Everyone knows about Parmigiano Reggiano (Parmesan). It’s hard, it’s dry, strong, smelly, slightly nutty and hits your tongue with a bit of a zappy twang.

Some people (like me) will just sit and happily munch our way through a block of it, but it is generally used grated or shaved in or over other dishes.

Although Parmigiano is the most well known aged hard cheese out there, it is far from the only one. There are a huge range of other fantastic cheeses that are perfect to use wherever you might normally use Parmigiano Reggiano.

What makes a good hard cheese

Pretty much any cheese that is aged long enough becomes firm. During the aging process, the moisture in the cheese evaporates and the salt in the cheese crystallizes, this is what gives Parmesan and other aged cheeses their distinct crunchiness under the teeth.

You can’t just buy a chunk of cheese, throw it on the shelf and hope for the best. Like wine, cheese needs to be aged under careful conditions, the temperature and humidity level should be kept as constant as possible, and the cheese needs to be rotated regularly. Most hard cheese are aged from anywhere between six months to seven years, but under the right conditions it is possible to age cheese for much longer.

Apart from the techniques involved in making it, and the way in which it is aged, the quality of the milk and other ingredients that go into the cheese have a big impact on the way that it tastes. A lot of the difference in the taste of cheese from different places comes from the air and the grass in that region, you can taste the difference in the milk.

How to store it

If you are lucky enough to have a wine cellar, or any kind of cellar really, then it is the ideal place to store your cheese. Cellars (generally) experience less changes of temperature and humidity than the rest of your house, and cheese likes this. It also likes to be in the dark.

Wrap the cheese in waxed paper, and if you are planning on keeping it for a reasonable length of time, then change the wrapping regularly (weekly is probably enough). If you find that mould is growing on the cheese, then just scrape the mould off, and change the wrapping.

and so, some suggestions for your delectation…

Parmigiano Reggiano

Parmigiano Reggiano is a cheese made from uncooked cow’s milk, and manufactured in a small region of northern Italy.

When the cheese reaches 12 months old, each one is inspected by a master grader. If the cheese passes the inspection then it is heat branded with the logo of the Consorzio Parmigiano Reggiano. This is your sign that you are getting the best quality cheese.

Although the cheese is ready to eat after 12 months, it is normally aged for longer. 18-24 months is typical, but it can be for much longer. The longer the cheese is aged, the more intense the flavour and aroma becomes, and the drier and more crystalline in texture.

What’s in a name?

Parmigiano Reggiano is often called Parmesan in English, but depending on where in the world you are, you may or may not be getting the real thing. In Europe the name Parmesan is protected by law, and only Parmigiano made in the correct region can carry the name. In other parts of the world, the term Parmesan is often applied to other chesses made in the same style.

Grana Padano

Probably the second most famous hard cheese in the world, and really very similar to its cousin Parmigiano Reggiano.

First created by Cistercian monks in the 12th century as a way to preserve excess milk, today Grana Padano is a legally protected cheese made in a specified region of Italy.

Although it is made in a similar way, using uncooked cows milk, Grana Padano is slightly milder and not as tangy as Parmigiano, and it is also a bit less crumbly in texture.


Piave comes from the Piave river valley in northern Italy. It is made from pasteurised cows milk that is partially skimmed.

What sets Piave apart from the other Italian cheeses on this list is the fact that it can be eaten either young or aged. When it is young it has quite a sweet taste, some of this sweetness is retained as the cheese ages but it also develops a slight nuttiness.

Outside of Italy, it is easier to find Piave as either vecchio or stravecchio, meaning old or extra old. Once it reaches this stage it is similar in taste to a young parmigiano, but slightly sweeter.

Aged Cheddar

So, just in case anyone starts to think that Italians have the monopoly on great hard cheeses, up pops the international crowd, starting off with one from England.

Quite possibly my favourite bit of cheese that I’ve ever stuck in my mouth was a piece of 5 year old cheddar at a farmers market in the south of England. It shares the texture characteristics of Parmigiano, and can be even more crystally, but it tastes, well… cheddary.

Cheddar ages very well. I’ve seen it on sale up to 12 years old, I’ve heard of it for sale up to 30 years old. One of the more unusual things about aged cheddar is that not only does it grate and shave very well, but it also retains the ability to melt nicely, which most harder cheeses don’t have.

Aged Gouda

As the British do with cheddar, so the Dutch do with gouda.

Now, I have to admit that I am not a fan of either gouda or edam normally, I find them both boring and bland and I don’t like the odd rubbery texture.

Aged gouda on the other hand is a completely different thing. It actually develops a strength of flavour that makes me think of is as a real cheese, something that bites you back a little bit while you are eating it. The texture also changes from that rubberiness into the classic hard cheese texture, firm and crumbly and a pleasure to bite into.

Gouda ages really nicely, and it’s not too difficult to find one that is 5 or 7 years old, at this point they really have nothing in common with a young gouda in terms of taste at all.

Even if you didn’t think that you liked gouda, then give the aged version a try, it might just change your mind.

Mahon seco

Mahon is one of the most popular Spanish cheeses, and ‘sec’ simply means dry in Spanish.

When mahon it is young it is mild and creamy, but after it has been aged for up to a year the flavour transforms completely. The cheese becomes intense, salty, and a bit nutty, and it develops a fantastic piquant edge.

Manchego seco

Another Spanish delight that ages beautifully, manchego is made from sheeps milk, and has a beautifully well rounded flavour.

Eat it with just about anything, but especially try it together with membrillo (quince paste) and maybe some pa amb tomàquet.


Sbrinz is a Swiss cheese, again made from cows milk. It is very much like Parmigiano, but tastes just a little more cultured or refined. Sbrinz lovers (or Swiss patriots) would tell you that this is because of the clean mountain air, and great pastures that the local cows get to graze on – they might just be right.

A cheese has to be aged for a minimum of 16 months before it can legally be sold as Sprinz. As with other aged cheeses, it is normally kept for longer than this to allow the flavour to develop, and is normally sold after 24-30 months.

Sbrinz might be a bit trickier to track down that some of the others on the list, but if you can find it then it is well worth trying out.

19 thoughts on “Choosing hard cheeses

  • April 15, 2013 at 9:54 am

    Where are all the American cheeses? I’ll tell you where, in a factory being mixed with artificial colours and vegetable oil to make string cheese!

  • April 15, 2013 at 10:22 am
    Permalink’re a big fat bitch. A dirty filthy peepee head as well. My grandmother was American-Cheese, and suffered a variety of injustices at the hands of people like you. Bet you were out blasting black folks with fire hoses in the ’60s too.

    PS- Thx for the cheese list, Johnnybaby. Just had some aged gouda the other day that was altogether blissful.

  • April 15, 2013 at 10:54 am

    Mr Juggs, I do say! What you just said was an awful and mean thing to say! And only because she gave her opinion. How could another human beings heart be so awful, my goodness! I could live with out your opinion for sure. And I must say, with the evil that came out of your mouth for this innocent opinion, either you lack education, or have never had the chance to travel and try really fine cheese. Either way, you being angry for something that happened to ol grandma is just plain silly! So young man, if you have nothing to say…please dont.

  • April 15, 2013 at 12:15 pm

    There are actually more and more good cheeses being made in the US nowadays, it is just that most people won’t know about them because the best ones are all made in small volume by little “artisianal” dairies.

    Sadly most of the US cheeses that are widely commercially available are pretty poor.

  • April 15, 2013 at 6:11 pm

    Well, it is fair to point out that due to the varied origins of people in the US, that just about all of the “proper” cheese based history will originate from Europe.

    Whereas, what’s sold as “American Cheese” is that rubbery shite, like the square slices made by Kraft. Sure, excellent for melting onto burgers, but little else.

    I certainly don’t think of it as cheese.

    And I still maintain, for variety, you can’t beat France for cheese……..

  • April 15, 2013 at 10:11 pm

    Delete Bill Juggs ignorant comments.
    Makes your site look “cheesy”!

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  • April 16, 2013 at 11:21 am

    Cabot cheddar!!!!!

  • April 16, 2013 at 12:58 pm

    You’ve got to try Testun Al Borolo. It’s a crumbly cheese, not too sharp, not too mild, aged in casks with the grape must from Borolo wine. It’s not sweet at all but has a definite grape finish. Amazing stuff.

    • April 22, 2013 at 10:09 am

      Yes, it’s a great cheese from the Piedmont region of Italy. Quite unusual, and I think that it is a semi-hard cheese, aged for about 4 months.

  • April 16, 2013 at 5:29 pm

    Don’t worry Bill Juggs I think your comment was pretty hillarious, too bad most people don’t have a sense of humor.

  • April 17, 2013 at 12:32 am

    What are the best stores to purchase good hard cheeses. Thanks.

  • April 17, 2013 at 12:52 pm

    Some fantastic “American Cheeses”
    Cabot Cloth-bound Cheddar aged at Jasper Hill Cellars
    O’Banon goat cheese
    The Sartori brand of cheeses…named my car after that one
    Rogue River Blue and Caveman Blue
    Cypress Grove cheeses especially Purple Haze and Midnight Moon
    Vermont Butter and Cheese Company’s wonderful selection of fresh goat cheeses.

    Just a small list of top favorites for anyone interested in seeing what American cheese makers can do.

  • April 17, 2013 at 2:53 pm

    Well, in my humble opinion, anyone who calls someone a ‘pee-pee head’ is pretty harmless. Go ahead and call me whatever you like, and I’ll just laugh. Life is too short to take such things so seriously. Lighten up people and eat more hard cheese!

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  • January 28, 2015 at 1:44 pm

    What sort of cheese should I use in a fondue?

    • October 2, 2015 at 8:19 am

      Cheese fondue is normally made with two (or more) types of cheese and some white wine.

      A decent Gruyère is normally one of the cheeses, with the other being a matter of choice. Vacherin Fribourgeois is excellent but might not be so easy to get hold of, Emmenthaler is also very good, but it makes the sauce a bit ‘stringy’.

  • October 1, 2015 at 10:06 pm

    He all, i love sprinz. It’s the best cheese for take over pasta on the world. The character from this cheese is unique. But in wich shop in England can i find them?

    • October 2, 2015 at 8:11 am

      It’s trickier to track down than any of the other cheeses on here, we have never seen it any supermarket.

      One place that normally have it is the International Cheese shop, they have branches at Liverpool Street station and Victoria station in London and also do mail order:

      Any decent cheese shop (sadly there aren’t very many about, are there) should either have it or be able to get hold of some for you.


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